2 Chung-hee Park, The Country, The Revolution and I (Seoul: Hollym, 1970), 156.
3 The specifics of the law can be found in Leroy Jones and Il SaKong, Government, Business, and Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: The Korean Case (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980): 280–82.
4 There are conflicting accounts of the details of the punishment as well as of the deal, since neither were well documented. See Hyung-A Kim, “State Building: The Military Junta’s Path to Modernity through Administrative Reforms,” in The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea, ed. Byung-Kook Kim and Ezra F. Vogel (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011),
85–111; as well as Eun Mee Kim and Gil-Sung Park, “The Chaebol,” in Kim and Vogel, 265–94.
5 Park, Country, 120.
6 Il SaKong, correspondence with the author, email, September 2019.
7 Jones and SaKong, Government, Business, and Entrepreneurship, 280–82
8 SaKong, correspondence, email, September 2019.
9 The Washington Post was purchased by Jeff Bezos in 2013. In reaction to the 2019 National Conservatism Conference, Megan McArdle published an article in the paper attacking industrial planning. See Megan McArdle, “Conservatives Want to Revive a One-Time Trick from More Than 100 Years Ago,” Washington Post, July 23, 2019.
10 Lester C. Thurow, “Microchips, Not Potato Chips,” Foreign Affairs 73, no. 4 (July–August 1994): 189–92.
11 Hyung-A Kim, Korea’s Development under Park Chung Hee: Rapid Industrialization, 1961–79 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004), 82–83.
12 For a quantitative assessment of the HCI drive see, Nathan Lane, “Manufacturing Revolutions—Industrial Policy and Industrialization in South Korea.” 2019
13 Even if South Korea was racing forward economically, politically it returned to authoritarian rule. The new Yushin constitution of 1972 allowed Park to be president for life. Under his repressive Yushin regime unions were curtailed, if not made illegal, and there were violent clashes between student groups and the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA). In 1979 President Park was assassinated by the Director of the KCIA during a banquet at a KCIA safe-house in Seoul.
14 Alice Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992). See also Alice Amsden, The Rise of “The Rest”: Challenges to the West From Late-Industrializing Economies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).
15 Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962).
16 Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant, 8.
17 Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant, 239.
18 Jung-En Woo, Race to the Swift: State and Finance in Korean Industrialization (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 42.
19 Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1982).
20 For an excellent and comprehensive intellectual history of the debates of this era, see Stephan Haggard, Developmental States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
21 Nancy M. Birdsall et al., The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy; Main Report (English), A World Bank Policy Research Report (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
22 Robert Wade, “Japan, the World Bank, and the Art of Paradigm Maintenance: The East Asian Miracle in Political Perspective,” New Left Review 217 (May/June 1996): 3–37.
23 Lewis T. Preston, foreword to Birdsall et al., East Asian Miracle, vi.
24 Chad Syverson, “Challenges to Mismeasurement Explanations for the U.S. Productivity Slowdown” (NBER Working Paper No. 21974, February 2016).
25 Amsden, writing in 2001, found China’s growth strategy reminiscent of Japan in the 1950s and 1960s. See Amdsen, Rise of “The Rest,” 178–79.
26 Ralph E. Gomory and William J. Baumol, Global Trade and Conflicting National Interests (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001).
27 Reda Cherif and Fuad Hasanov, “The Return of the Policy That Shall Not Be Named: Principles of Industrial Policy” (IMF Working Paper No. 19/74, March 26, 2019).
28 Haggard, Developmental States, 72–73.
29 William B. Bonvillian and Charles Weiss, Technological Innovation in Legacy Sectors (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).
30 Aaron Klein, “Decline in US Shipbuilding Industry: A Cautionary Tale of Foreign Subsidies Destroying US Jobs,” Eno Center for Transportation, September 1, 2015. Shipbuilding also serves as a good example of why firm-to-firm misallocation research, the main thrust of academic and OECD research into the productivity slowdown, is useless here, given that the United States has been bumped from the sector altogether. For an example of this mainstream approach, see Dan Andrews, Chiara Criscuolo, and Peter N. Gal, “The Best versus the Rest: The Global Productivity Slowdown, Divergence across Firms, and the Role of Public Policy” (OECD Productivity Working Papers No. 5, December 2, 2016).
31 Andy Grove, “How America Can Create Jobs,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 1, 2010.
32 Those who recall the Blum-Byrnes agreements also know that this sort of competition is not entirely new, nor is it without precedent in U.S. history.
33 For an extensive history of Korean art cinema and the role of the state, see Euny Hong, The Birth of Korean Cool (New York: Picador, 2014), specifically Chapter 11, “K-Cinema, the Journey from Crap to Cannes.”
34 Emily Blake, “The Strength of K-Pop Fandom, by the Numbers,” Forbes, April 4, 2018.
35 This number is reported in Ingyu Oh and Hyo-Jung Lee, “K-pop in Korea: How the Pop Music Industry is Changing a Post-Developmental Society,” Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review E-Journal 9, (December 2013).
36 Both speeches are quoted in Tae Young Kim and Dal Yong Jin, “Cultural Policy in the Korean Wave: An Analysis of Cultural Diplomacy Embedded in Presidential Speeches,” International Journal of Communication 10 (2016): 5514–34.
37 Hye-Kyung Lee, “From National Culture to Transnational Consumerism,” in The Korean Wave: Korean Media Go Global, ed. Youna Kim (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013), 191.
38 Hye-Kyung Lee, Cultural Policy in South Korea: Making a New Patron State (London: Routledge, 2019) and correspondence with author.
39 For an (unofficial) English translation of the law, see “National Intelligence Law of the PRC (2017),” China Law Translate, June 27, 2017. For a legal primer on the law, see Mannheimer Swartling, Applicability of Chinese National Intelligence Law to Chinese and Non-Chinese Entities (Stockholm: Mannheimer Swartling, 2019).
40 Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman, The Triumph of Injustice: How the Rich Dodge Taxes and How to Make Them Pay (New York: W. W. Norton, 2019).
41 BTS, “Idol,” by Bang Si-hyuk et al., track 15 on Love Yourself: Answer, Big Hit, 2018. There are typically English translations for every idol pop song within about twenty-four hours of release.