2 Amber Athey, “Big Pharma and Free Market Orgs Unite Against Trump’s ‘Buy American’ Order,” Spectator USA, March 25, 2020.
3 “Executive Order on Ensuring Essential Medicines, Medical Countermeasures, and Critical Inputs Are Made in the United States,” Executive Office of the President, August 6, 2020.
4 The Japanese government has offered subsides to companies to diversify supply chains away from China. Toyota issued a statement in response in May: “Toyota has no plans to change our strategy in China or Asia due to the current situation. The auto industry uses a lot of suppliers and operates a vast supply chain and it would be impossible to just switch in an instant. We understand the government’s position, but we have no plans to change our production.” Quoted in Julian Ryall, “Leave China?: No Thanks, Some Japanese Firms Say to Tokyo’s Cash Incentives,” South China Morning Post, May 13, 2020.
5 Quoted in Byung-Kook Kim, “The Leviathan: Economic Bureaucracy under Park,” The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea, ed. Byung-Kook Kim and Ezra F. Vogel (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011), 218.
6 Dan Breznitz, Innovation and the State: Political Choice and Strategies for Growth in Israel, Taiwan, and Ireland (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007); Gil Avnimelech and Morris Tuebal, “Venture Capital Policy in Israel: A Comparative Analysis and Lessons for Other Countries,” Hebrew University School of Business Administration and School of Economics, December 2002.
7 Dan Breznitz and Peter Cowhey, “America’s Two Systems of Innovation: Innovation for Production in Fostering U.S. Growth,” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 7, no. 3 (July 2012): 127–54; Dan Breznitz and Peter Cowhey, “Reviving America’s Forgotten Innovation System: Fostering US Growth through Incremental Product and Process Innovation,” The Productivity Puzzle: Restoring Economic Dynamism, ed. David E. Adler and Laurence B. Siegel (CFA Institute Research Foundation, 2019); Dan Breznitz, Innovation in Real Places: Strategies for Prospering in an Unforgiving World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021).
8 Breznitz, Innovation and the State.
9 Uber founder Travis Kalanick, with backing from Saudi Arabia’s sovereign wealth fund, has recently launched a start-up focused on “ghost” kitchens, see: Katie Canales, “Ousted Uber Cofounder Travis Kalanick Has Reportedly Spent $130 Million on His Ghost Kitchen Startup. Here’s What It’s Like inside One of the Secretive Locations,” Business Insider, October 20, 2020.
10 Dan Breznitz and Michael Murpree, Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization and Economic Growth in China (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), 185.
11 For a full treatment of IPR, local growth and BEPS, see chapter 9 of Breznitz, Innovation in Real Places.
12 “Rubio, Colleagues Introduce the Strengthening America’s Supply Chain and National Security Act” (press release), Office of Senator Marco Rubio, March 19, 2020.
13 See David Adler and Dan Breznitz, “Reshoring Supply Chains: A Practical Policy Agenda,” American Affairs 4, no. 2 (Summer 2020): 6–17.
14 Katherine Eban, Bottle of Lies: The Inside Story of the Generic Drug Boom(New York: Ecco, 2019).
15 Daniel J. Kevles, “The Scandal of Our Drug Supply,” New York Review of Books, July 23, 2020.