2 Dan Breznitz and David Adler, “Reshoring Production and Restoring American Prosperity: A Practical Policy Agenda,” American Affairs 4, no. 4 (Winter 2020): 19–35; Dan Breznitz and David Adler, “America Can’t Even Produce the Things It Invented,” New York Times, January 4, 2021.
3 Eric Lipton, “The ‘Red Dawn’ Emails: 8 Key Exchanges on the Faltering Response to the Coronavirus,” New York Times, April 11, 2020, supplementary materials, “The ‘Red Dawn’ Emails.”
4 David Wallace-Wells, “How the West Lost Covid,” New York Magazine, March 15, 2021; “Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic: Reported Cases and Deaths by Country or Territory,” Worldometers, accessed April 19, 2021.
5 Elisabeth B. Reynolds, Hiram M. Samel, and Joyce Lawrence, “Learning by Building: Complementary Assets and the Migration of Capabilities in U.S. Innovative Firms,” ch. 4 in Production in the Innovation Economy, ed. Richard M. Locke and Rachel L. Wellhausen (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2014); David Adler, “Financing Advanced Manufacturing: Why VCs Aren’t the Answer,” American Affairs 3, no. 2 (Summer 2019): 43–57.
6 William Boone Bonvillian, Richard Van Atta, and Patrick Windham, eds., The Darpa Model for Transformative Technologies: Perspectives on the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2019).
7 Charles Weiss and William B. Bonvillian, “Complex, Established ‘Legacy’ Sectors: The Technology Revolutions That Do Not Happen,” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 6, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 157–87.
8 Lawrence Goodman, “Rosenstiel Award given to pioneering scientists behind Covid-19 vaccines,” BrandeisNOW, January 21, 2021.
9 Moncef Slaoui and Matthew Hepburn, “Developing Safe and Effective Covid Vaccines—Operation Warp Speed’s Strategy and Approach,” New England Journal of Medicine 383, no. 18 (2020): 1701–1703.
10 Both vaccines, however, have been associated with extremely rare but dangerous blood clots, leading to a temporary “pause” in the use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in April 2021 in the United States.
11 Merck & Co, Inc., “Merck Discontinues Development of SARS-CoV-2/covid-19 Vaccine Candidates; Continues Development of Two Investigational Therapeutic Candidates” (news release), January 25, 2021.
12 Riley Griffin and Drew Armstrong, “Pfizer Vaccine’s Funding Came From Berlin, Not Washington,” Bloomberg, November 9, 2020.
13 Andrew Jacobs, “Crisis Looms in Antibiotics as Drug Makers Go Bankrupt,” New York Times, December 25, 2019.
14 The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (barda) is within the office of ASPR in HHS.
15 Moshe Schwartz and Heidi M. Peters, “Department of Defense Use of Other Transaction Authority: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 22, 2019, R45521.
16 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions: DOD’s Use of Other Transactions for Prototype Projects Has Increased, GAO-20-84 (Washington, D.C., November 22, 2019).
17 For more on Bayh-Dole, see: Robin C. Feldman, Betty Change-Rowe, and Rabiah Oral, “Viral Licensing: Ensuring the Public Interest When Taxpayers Fund Pharmaceutical Research,” Santa Clara Law Review 59, no. 3 (2020): 641–61.
18 On Oct 16, 2020, the consumer group Knowledge Ecology International (KEI) sued HHS and the Army under the FOIA to seek the full release of Covid-19 research, development, and procurement contracts. See: James Love, “KEI Sues HHS and the Army Over Access to covid-19 Contracts,” Knowledge Ecology International, October 16, 2020.
19 “FAQs on Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for Medical Devices During the covid-19 Pandemic,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, last updated August 18, 2020.
20 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Covid-19: Federal Efforts Accelerate Vaccine and Therapeutic Development, but More Transparency Needed on Emergency Use Authorizations, GAO-21-207 (Washington, D.C., November 17, 2020).
21 For the full account of the EU’s failures regarding vaccines, see Jillian Deutsch and Sarah Wheaton, “How Europe Fell Behind on Vaccines,” Politico, January 27, 2021.
22 Wolfgang Münchau, “Our Worst Policy Error,” EuroIntelligence, January 23, 2021. The estimates, from EuroIntelligence, are that the EU paid 24 percent less for the Pfizer vaccine and 45 percent less for the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine than the United States.
23 Ursula von der Leyen, “Special Address” (speech), Davos Agenda Week, January 26, 2021, transcript. Von der Leyen is the president of the European Commission.
24 Brett Samuels and Jessie Hellmann, “CDC Has Tested 1,583 People for Coronavirus,” Hill, March 7, 2020.
25 David Willman, “The CDC’s Failed Race against Covid-19: A Threat Underestimated and a Test Overcomplicated,” Washington Post, December 26, 2020.
26 Slaoui and Hepburn, New England Journal of Medicine.
27 Hearing on “Pathway to a Vaccine: Efforts to Develop a Safe, Effective and Accessible Covid-19 Vaccine,” before the House Energy and Commerce Committee Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 116th Cong. (February 23, 2021) (testimony of Dr. Stephen Hoge, President of Moderna, Inc.).
28 U.S. Government Accountability Office, Operation Warp Speed: Accelerated covid-19 Vaccine Development Status and Efforts to Address Manufacturing Challenges, GAO-21-319 (Washington, D.C., February 11, 2021).
29 “Pfizer Chairman and CEO Albert Bourla Speaks with CNBC’s ‘Squawk Box’ Today,” Squawk Box, aired December 14, 2020 on CNBC, television broadcast transcript.
30 Breznitz and Adler, American Affairs 4, no. 4 (Winter 2020): 19–35.
31 Dan Breznitz and Michael Murpree, Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization and Economic Growth in China (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), 185.
32 Kathleen Dooling, “Phased Allocation of covid-19 Vaccines” (PowerPoint presentation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices covid-19 Vaccines Work Group, November 23, 2020).
33 The CDC’s recommendations, as well as the New York Times’s non-reporting of changes to them, caused political scientist Yascha Mounk to write the essay “Why I’m Losing Trust in the Institutions.” See Yascha Mounk, “Why I’m Losing Trust in the Institutions,” Persuasion, December 23, 2020.
34 Association of Immunization Managers, American Immunization Registry Association, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, and National Association of County and City Health Officials to General Gustave Perna and Dr. Moncef Slaoui (advisory letter on Operation Wrap Speed), June 23, 2020.
35 There were some exceptions, see “Trump Administration Partners with CVS and Walgreens to Provide Covid-19 Vaccine to Protect Vulnerable Americans in Long-Term Care Facilities Nationwide” (press release), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 16, 2020.
36 “Nation’s Health Officials Call for Greater Collaboration and Communication with Federal Government” (press release), Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, September 2, 2020.
37 “Covid-19: Policy Recommendations for Congress and the Administration,” Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, February 2021.
38 “Covid Data Tracker: Vaccinations in the US,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed January 15, 2021.
39 Josh Geballe, “Leading through Covid: How Connecticut Accelerated Its Vaccinations,” Yale Insights, April 7, 2021.
40 Geballe, Yale Insights.
41 Patrick Connole, “Covid-19 Cases Decline in Nursing Homes After Vaccine Rollout,” Provider Magazine, February 11, 2021.
42 Chad P. Brown, “Covid-19: China’s Exports of Medical Supplies Provide a Ray of Hope,” Peterson Institute for International Economics, March 26, 2020; Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, “The New Empty Argument against Trade,” Project Syndicate, May 12, 2020.
43 Dan Breznitz and Peter Cowhey, “Reviving America’s Forgotten Innovation System: Fostering U.S. Growth through Incremental Product and Process Innovation,” in The Productivity Puzzle: Restoring Economic Dynamism, ed. David E. Adler and Laurence B. Siegel (Charlottesville, Va.: CFA Institute Research Foundation, 2019).
44 Robert H. Wade, “The Paradox of US Industrial Policy: The Developmental State in Disguise,” chap. 14 in Transforming Economies: Making Industrial Policy Work for Growth, Jobs and Development, ed. José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs, Irmgard Nübler, and Richard Kozul-Wright (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2014), 379–400.
45 Wade, “Paradox of US Industrial Policy,” 379–400.
46 Paul Krugman, “What Should Trade Negotiators Negotiate About?,” Journal of Economic Literature 35, no. 1 (March 1997): 113–20.
47 See also Robert D. Atkinson, “Time for a New National Innovation System for Security and Prosperity,” PRISM 9, no. 2 (2021): 59–75; Schumpeter is an exception.
48 Original CSET Translation of “(Authorized Release) Proposal of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on Drawing Up the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and Long-Range Objectives for 2030,” Xinhua News Agency, November 3, 2020, trans. Etcetera Language Group, Inc., ed. Ben Murphy, December 7, 2020.
49 There have been some recent avant-garde economic papers which take a broader view of methods beyond redistribution to achieve equitable growth. A dynamic economy, specifically the East Asian model with its focus on manufacturing, produces fair and inclusive growth. A foundational paper here, which might only be fully appreciated in years to come is, Philippe Aghion, Reda Cherif, and Fuad Hasanov, “Fair and Inclusive Markets: Why Dynamism Matters,” International Monetary Fund Working Paper WP/21/29 (February 2021): 1–22.
50 Health Advanced Research Projects Agency (harpa); Kevin Breuninger, “Biden Says U.S. Will Seek to ‘End Cancer As We Know It’ after Covid Pandemic,” CNBC, February 19, 2021.
51 This criticism of the Jones Act by CATO, which might as well have been written by the Chinese Communist Party, contains a useful summary: Colin Grabow, Inu Manak, and Daniel J. Ikenson, “The Jones Act: A Burden America Can No Longer Bear,” Cato Institute, June 28, 2018.
52 Reagan ended U.S. subsidies to shipbuilding in 1981. Other countries didn’t. The U.S. industry collapsed. See Adam Armour, “Sid Salter: The Future of U.S. Navy Shipbuilding Will Substantially Impact State’s Ingalls Shipyard,” Daily Journal, February 10, 2021.
53 Ralph Vartabedian, “How California’s Faltering High-Speed Rail Project Was ‘Captured’ by Costly Consultants,” Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2019.