2 Alan Cawson, Organized Interests and the State: Studies in Meso-Corporatism (Bristol: Sage, 1985), 8.
3 Philippe Schmitter, “Still the Century of Corporatism?,” Review of Politics 36, no. 1 (January 1974): 93–94.
4 Jonathan Unger and Anita Chan, “China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model,” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 33 (January 1995): 30.
5 Jennifer Y. J. Hsu and Reza Hasmath, “The Local Corporatist State and NGO Relations in China,” Journal of Contemporary China 23, no. 87 (2014): 522.
6 For further information see Sarah Eaton and Reza Hasmath, “Economic Legitimation in a New Era: Public Attitudes About State Ownership and Market Regulation” (paper presented at the European Political Science Association, Milan, Italy, June 22–24, 2017).
7 Jonathan Unger and Anita Chan, “State Corporatism and Business Associations in China: A Comparison with Earlier Emerging Economies of East Asia,” International Journal of Emerging Markets 10, no. 2 (2015): 184–85.
8 Unger and Chan, “China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model,” 37.
9 Chang-Tai Hseih and Zheng (Michael) Song, “Grasp the Large, Let Go of the Small: The Transformation of the State Sector in China,” Brookings Papers in Economic Activity (Spring 2015): 295–346.
10 During the global height of neoliberalism, largely characterized by the Washington consensus, China maintained its state-centric approach in some form or another. Indeed, a popular version of Chinese public policy came to be called the “Beijing Consensus.” For further information, see Reza Hasmath, “White Cat, Black Cat or Good Cat?: The Beijing Consensus as an Alternative Philosophy for Policy Deliberation,” China’s World 2, no. 1 (2017): 12–24.
11 It should be noted that, in the context of Japan and South Korea, corporatism is often married with conceptions of a developmental state, whereby the state has dominated industrialization and, subsequently, the majority of social actors have been co-opted to focus on this national goal.
12 Reza Hasmath, “Red China’s Iron Grip on Power,” Washington Times, November 9, 2012.
13 Jennifer Y. J. Hsu and Reza Hasmath, eds., The Chinese Corporatist State: Adaptation, Survival and Resistance (London: Routledge, 2013).
14 The local state structure is defined as the “organization of local government,” while local state practice denotes “the way local governments implement central policy and make and implement their own policy in the absence of higher-level guidance.” For further information, see Elizabeth J. Remick, “The Significance of Variation in Local States: The Case of Twentieth Century China,” Comparative Politics 34, no. 4 (July 2002): 399.
15 Teh-Chang Lin, “Environmental NGOs and the Anti-Dam Movements: A Social Movement with Chinese Characteristics,” Issues and Studies 43, no. 4 (December 2007): 178.
16 Benjamin L. Read, “Assessing Variation in Civil Society Organizations: China’s Homeowner Association in Comparative Perspective,” Comparative Political Studies 41, no. 9 (September 2008): 1240–65.
17 Andrew Walder, “The County Government as an Industrial Corporation,” in Zouping in Transition: The Process of Reform in Rural North China, ed. Andrew G. Walder (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), 62–85.
18 Marc Blecher and Vivienne Shue, “Into Leather: State-Led Development and the Private Sector in Xinji,” China Quarterly 166 (June 2001): 368–93.
19 Jean C. Oi, “Fiscal Reform and the Economic Foundations of Local State Corporatism in China,” World Politics 45, no. 1 (October 1992): 99–126; and “The Role of the Local State in China’s Transitional Economy,” China Quarterly 144 (December 1995): 1132–49.
20 Oi, “Fiscal Reform,” 111.
21 Jane Duckett, The Entrepreneurial State in China: Real Estate and Commerce Departments in Reform Era Tianjin (London: Routledge, 1998).
22 Jessica C. Teets, Reza Hasmath, and Orion A. Lewis, “The Incentive to Innovate?: The Behavior of Policymakers in China,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 22, no. 4 (2017): 505–17.
23 Reza Hasmath and Caleb Pomeroy, “Convergence and Divergence amongst China’s Foreign Policy Think Tanks” (paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, August 31–September 3, 2017).
24 Stefanie Weil, “The Strange Case of Pluralist Lobbying in a Corporatist Setting: Defending Western Business Interests in China,” Business and Politics 20, no. 1 (March 2018): 70–97.
25 Andrew MacDonald and Reza Hasmath “Does Ideology Matter for the Citizenry in China?: Public Attitudes and Preferences for Economic Policies” (paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Conference, Chicago, April 5–8, 2018). See also Wenfang Tang, “The ‘Surprise’ of Authoritarian Resilience in China,” American Affairs 2, no. 1 (Spring 2018): 101–17.
26 For example, an increasing number of private entrepreneurs are members of the CCP and/or participate in the People’s Political Consultative Conference. For more information, see Keming Yang, “Keep Business for Business: Associations of Private Enterprise in China,” in The Chinese Corporatist State, 66–82.
27 Pew Research Center, “Public Trust in Government: 1958–2019,” April 11, 2019.