2 Some people like to illustrate this contrast between group-based and individualistic cultures, or between authoritarianism and democracy, by how mailing addresses are written in English and Chinese. In English, the order is self (first name), family (last name), neighborhood, city, state, and country. In Chinese, the order is reversed: country, province, city, neighborhood, family name, and the last is one’s given name. This contrast may play a role in shaping people’s thinking in different political cultures.
3 Wenfang Tang, Populist Authoritarianism: Chinese Political Culture and Regime Sustainability (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).
4 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 2016).
5 Also see Wenfang Tang and Benjamin Darr, “Chinese Nationalism and Its Political and Social Origins,” Journal of Contemporary China 21, no. 77 (2012): 811–26.
6 See, for example, Colin Mackerras, “What Is China? Who Is Chinese? Han-Minority Relations, Legitimacy, and the State,” in Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen, eds., State and Society in 21st-Century China: Crisis, Contention and Legitimation (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004).
7 See Wenfang Tang and Gaochao He, Separate but Loyal: Ethnicity and Nationalism in China (Honolulu: East-West Center, 2010).
8 Daniel A. Bell, The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).
9 Rosemary Rossi, “Bill Maher Warns: China Is Dominating US Because ‘Nothing Ever Moves in This Impacted Colon of a Country’ (Video),” The Wrap, March 13, 2021.
10 Wenfang Tang, “The Worshipping Atheist: Institutional and Diffused Religiosities in China,” China: An International Journal 12, no. 3 (December 2014): 1–26.
11 See Tang, Populist Authoritarianism.
12 Elizabeth J. Perry, “Epilogue: China’s (R)evolutionary Governance and the COVID-19 Crisis,” in Hsu, Tsai, and Chang, eds., Evolutionary Governance in China.