2 Soft Power with Chinese Characteristics: China’s Campaign for Hearts and Minds, ed. Kingsley Edney, Stanley Rosen, and Ying Zhu (London: Routledge, 2020), 5.
3 Daniel C. Lynch, “The End of China’s Rise: Consequences for PRC,” Soft Power with Chinese Characteristics, 45–62.
4 Yun-han Chu, Mon-hua Huang, and Jie Lu, “How East Asians View a Rising China,” Soft Power with Chinese Characteristics, 262–83.
5 Stanley Rosen, “Ironies of Soft Power: the United States and China in the Age of Donald Trump and Xi Jinping,” Soft Power with Chinese Characteristics, 67.
6 Jia Yi, “The Faults of Qin,” in Sources of Chinese Tradition from Earliest Times to 1600, ed. Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 228–31.
7 Han Feizi, “The Five Vermin,” in Basic Writings, trans. Burton Watson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 97–118.
8 In general see Dingxin Zhao, The Confucian-Legalist State: A New Theory of Chinese History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), who argues that many Legalist principles were in fact enshrined in Chinese political practice, though its official state ideology remained Confucian.
9 Yuri Pines, “Legalism in Chinese Philosophy,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, November 16, 2018.
10 See James Hankins, “Reforming Elites the Confucian Way,” American Affairs 1, no. 2 (Summer 2017): 45–57.
11 See James Hankins, “Missionaries of Humanity: Popular Confucianism in China,” American Affairs 3, no. 4 (Winter 2019): 185–98.
12 Daniel A. Bell, The China Model: Political Meritocracy and the Limits of Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).
13 Daniel A. Bell and Wang Pei, Just Hierarchy: Why Social Hierarchies Matter in China and the Rest of the World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020), 24, 26.
14 Tongdong Bai, Against Political Equality (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020), 68, 96, 108.
15 Huang Tsung-hsi (Zongxi), Waiting for the Dawn: A Plan for the Prince, trans. Wm. Theodore de Bary (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 89–90.