2 See, for example, Christopher Lasch, “The Cultural Cold War: A Short History of the Congress for Cultural Freedom,” in The Agony of the American Left (New York: Vintage Books, 1969), 61–114; and Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?: The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London: Granta Books, 2000).
3 Sonny Bunch, “The CIA Funded a Culture War against Communism. It Should Do So Again,” Washington Post, August 22, 2018.
4 Nikole Hannah-Jones, “Our Democracy’s Founding Ideals Were False When They Were Written. Black Americans Have Fought to Make Them True,” New York Times, August 14, 2019.
5 Reinhold Wagnleitner, Coca-Colonization and the Cold War: The Cultural Mission of the United States in Austria after the Second World War, trans. Diana M. Wolf (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994).
6 See Inderjeet Parmar, Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012); and Kathleen D. McCarthy, “From Cold War to Cultural Development: The International Cultural Activities of the Ford Foundation, 1950–1980,” Daedalus 116, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 93–117.
7 Quoted in Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, 408.
8 Quoted in Hugh Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008), 87.
9 See, among other works, Alexander Bloom, Prodigal Sons: The New York Intellectuals and Their World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Alan Wald, The New York Intellectuals: The Rise and Decline of the Anti-Stalinist Left from the 1930s to the 1980s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987); and Hugh Wilford, The New York Intellectuals: From Vanguard to Institution (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1995).
10 Editorial Statement, “Our Country and Our Culture,” Partisan Review 19, no. 3 (May–June 1952): 284.
11 Eugene V. Debs, “Speech of Acceptance of the Presidential Nomination of the Socialist Party,” Marxists.org.
12 The story is related by Daniel Bell in the documentary Arguing the World, directed by Joseph Dorman, 1998.
13 Leon Trotsky, “If America Should Go Communist,” Marxists.org
14 Leon Trotsky, “A Letter to the American Trotskyists,” Marxists.org. The author thanks Cam Hardy for recommending this source.
15 This allegiance to the American Revolution is rare on the contemporary left, but instances of it still exist. See James Vaughn, “1776 in World History: The American Revolution as Bourgeois Revolution,” Platypus Review 62 (December 2013–January 2014); Ralph Leonard, “The Birthday of a New World,” Medium, July 4, 2020; as well as the valiant efforts by the journalistic arm of the Trotskyist Socialist Equality Party to expose the racialist roots of the “1619 Project” on their World Socialist Web Site.
16 See “John F. Kennedy Presidential Campaign In Harlem, New York 1960 (Full Speech & New Video),” Harlem World Magazine, February 9, 2019.
17 Michael Harrington, “The Anti-Ideology Ideologues,” in The End of Ideology Debate, ed. Chaim I. Waxman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968), 342–51.
18 Quoted in Serge Guilbaut, How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: Abstract Expressionism, Freedom, and the Cold War, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 172.
19 Greg Barnhisel, Cold War Modernists: Art, Literature, and American Cultural Diplomacy (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015), 108.
20 Quoted in Barnhisel, 65.
21 Quoted in Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, 272.
22 Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer, 106.
23 Wilford, 112–13.
24 Wilford, 121–22; Tony Shaw, Hollywood’s Cold War (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), 108.
25 Shaw, 202–3.
26 Shaw, 203.
27 Robert Pippin, Hollywood Westerns and American Myth: The Importance of Howard Hawks and John Ford for Political Philosophy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 4–5.
28 André Bazin, “The Western: Or the American Film Par Excellence,” in What Is Cinema?, vol. 2, ed. and trans. Hugh Gray (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 148.
29 Max Frisch, “Unsere Arroganz gegenüber Amerika,” in Öffentlichkeit als Partner (Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1967), 29; my translation.
30 Frisch, “Unsere Arroganz,” 34.
31 James Burnham, “Our Country and Our Culture,” Partisan Review 19, no. 3 (May–June 1952): 290.
32 See Richard Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth‑Century America (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992).
33 See James Atlas, Bellow: A Biography (New York: Modern Library, 2000), especially 191–92.
34 Irving Howe, “Black Boys and Native Sons,” Dissent Magazine (Fall 1963): 363.
35 Howe, 355.
36 Ralph Ellison, “The World and the Jug,” in The Collected Essays of Ralph Ellison, ed. John F. Callahan (New York: Modern Library, 2003), 164.
37 Ellison, 172; on the literary politics of the Cold War liberal consensus, see Thomas Hill Schaub, American Fiction in the Cold War (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991).
38 See especially his famous Partisan Review essay “Everybody’s Protest Novel,” in James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (New York: Penguin, 2017), 13–23.
39 James Baldwin to Joseph McDaniel, Feb. 19, 1959, Ford Foundation records, American Literary Manuscripts (ALM) collection, FA718, Box 1, Folder 1, Rockefeller Archive Center, Sleepy Hollow, New York.
40 Julian Spahr, Du Bois’s Telegram: Literary Resistance and State Containment (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2018), 90.
41 David Riesman, “Our Country and Our Culture,” Partisan Review 19, no. 3 (May–June 1952): 310–11.
42 See Shaw’s extended discussion of the movie in Hollywood’s Cold War, 211–26.
43 Jason Epstein, “The CIA and the Intellectuals,” New York Review of Books, April 20, 1967.
44 Quoted in Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer, 241; ellipses in original.
45 Quoted in Saunders, Who Paid the Piper?, 401.
46 Richard Rorty, Achieving Our Country: Leftist Thought in Twentieth-Century America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), 7–8.
47 Maegan Vazquez, “NY Gov. Andrew Cuomo Says America ‘Was Never That Great,’” CNN, August 16, 2018.
48 Ella Torres, Guy Davies, and Karson Yiu, “Why Exuberant Hong Kong Protesters Are Waving American Flags,” ABC News, November 28, 2019; and Joseph Guzman, “George Washington Statue Toppled, American Flag Burned by Portland Protesters,” The Hill, June 19, 2020.
49 Timothy Egan, “The World Is Taking Pity on US,” New York Times, May 8, 2020.
50 Brook Kelly-Green and Luna Yasiu, “Why Black Lives Matter to Philanthropy,” Ford Foundation (website), July 19, 2016.
51 Darren Walker, “Toward a New Gospel of Wealth,” Ford Foundation (website), October 1, 2015.
52 Karen Ferguson, Top Down: The Ford Foundation, Black Power, and the Reinvention of Racial Liberalism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013); see also Cedric Johnson, Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African American Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
53 See Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000); Theda Skocpol, Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life (Norman, Okla.: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2003); and Michael Lind, The New Class War: Saving Democracy from the Managerial Elite (New York: Portfolio, 2020); see also my interview with Green Party presidential candidate Howie Hawkins, “‘The Democrats Are Worthless’: An Interview with Howie Hawkins,” Platypus Review 126 (May 2020).
54 Rorty, Achieving Our Country, 11.
55 Josh Eidelson and Hassan Kanu, “It’s Now Even Easier to Fire U.S. Workers for What They Say,” Bloomberg, July 30, 2020.
56 James Kirchick, “I Smuggled Posters for ‘The Interview’ into North Korea,” Daily Beast, January 20, 2015.
57 Alex Hochuli, “The Triumph of American Idealism,” Damage Magazine, June 17, 2020.
58 Alexander Horn, “Europe’s Zombie Economy Staggers On,” Spiked, May 28, 2020.
59 “Obama ‘Is a Megalomaniac Narcissist’: Christopher Hitchens on Culture, Celebrity & The Daily Show,” YouTube, 45:13, posted by “The Film Archives,” Jan. 13, 2014. The pertinent remarks begin around time 0:00:28.