1 See particularly the work of the Open Markets Institute. See also Tim Wu, The Curse of Bigness (New York: Columbia Global Reports, 2018); Matt Stoller, Goliath: The 100-Year War between Monopoly Power and Democracy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2019); Gerald Berk, “Antimonopoly and the Democrats,” Dissent, November 25, 2019.
2 Ellis Hawley, The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 1966.
3 Gabriel Winant, “No Going Back: The Power and Limits of the Anti-Monopolist Tradition,” Nation, January 2, 2020; James Galbraith, “The Past and Future of Antitrust,” American Affairs 4, no. 1 (Spring 2020): 55–62.
4 This was analyzed by Karl Polanyi through his concept of fictitious commodities; see Polanyi’s The Great Transformation (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
5 Henry Sumner Maine, Ancient Law (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2002), ch. 5.
6 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, in The Marx-Engels Reader, ed. Robert Tucker, 2nd edition (New York: Norton, 1978),
7 Gary Becker, The Economics of Discrimination (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957).
8 Caitlin Rosenthal, Accounting for Slavery (Cambridge: Harvard, 2018).
9 Karl Marx, “The Fetishism of Commodities,” in The Marx-Engels Reader, ed. Robert Tucker, 2nd edition (New York: Norton, 1978), 319–29.
10 “Rising Wages Hit Firms’ Profits in China’s ‘Sock City,’” South China Morning Post, November 21, 2014.
11 State of Innovation, ed. Fred Block and Matthew R. Keller (Boulder: Paradigm, 2011).
12 Daniel Roos, Daniel T. Jones, and James P. Womack, The Machine that Changed the World (New York: Scribner, 1990); Josh Whitford, “Waltzing, Relational Work, and the Construction (or not) of Collaboration in Manufacturing Industries,” Politics & Society 40, no. 2 (2012): 249–71.
13 “A Tiny Screw Shows Why iPhones Won’t Be Assembled in USA,” New York Times, January 28, 2019. This reasoning could change, however, if trade tensions with China become more serious. The question is whether it would be easier for Apple to rebuild those supply chains in the U.S. or in Vietnam or Malaysia.
14 Data are from the Bureau of Economic Affairs, “Personal Consumption Expenditures,” National Income and Product Accounts.
15 Lewis Daly “What Is Our Public GDP?” (New York: Demos, 2014).
16 E. Brynjolfsson and J. H. Oh, “The Attention Economy: Measuring the Value of Free Digital Services on the Internet,” Thirty Third International Conference on Information Systems, Orlando 2012.
17 B. Bridgman, “Accounting for Household Production in the National Accounts: An Update, 1965–2014,” Survey of Current Business (February 2016): 1–5.
18 The central role of infrastructure is also emphasized in Foundational Economy Collective, Foundational Economy (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 2018).
19 Mark Granovetter, “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness,” American Journal of Sociology 91, no. 3 (November 1985):
20 Albert Hirschman, Exit, Voice, Loyalty (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970).
21 Paul David, “Clio and the Economics of Qwerty,” American Economic Review 75, no. 2 (1985): 332–37.
22 K. Sabeel Rahman and Kathleen Thelen, “The Rise of the Platform Business Model and the Transformation of 21st Century Capitalism,” Politics & Society 47, no.2 (2019): 177–204; Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019).
23 Fred Block, “Democratizing Finance,” Politics & Society 42, no. 1 (2014): 3–28.
24 Alana Samuels, “When Wall Street Is Your Landlord,” Atlantic, February 13, 2019.
25 Thomas Philippon, The Great Reversal (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2019.)
26 Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, and J.-P. Fitoussi, Mismeasuring Our Lives (New York: New Press, 2010).
27 Brett Christophers, Banking across Boundaries (Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2013).
28 “How Many Products Does Amazon Sell?,” Scrapehero, April 24, 2019.
29 Harvey Leibenstein, Beyond Economic Man (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976).
30 The term comes from Liam Murphy and Thomas Nagel, The Myth of Ownership (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). See also David Woodruff, “To Democratize Finance, Democratize Central Banking,” Politics & Society 47, no. 4 (2019): 593–610.
31 Margaret Somers, “How Grandpa Became a Welfare Queen,” in The Transformation of Citizenship, vol. 1, ed. Juergen Mackert and Bryan Turner (New York: Routledge, 2017), ch. 6.
32 Fred Block, “Read Their Lips: Taxation and the Right-Wing Agenda,” in The New Fiscal Sociology, ed. I. W. Martin, A. K. Mehrotra, and M. Prasad (New York: Cambridge, 2009), 68–85.
33 Everyday libertarianism or market justice can be seen as related to Marx’s commodity fetishism. People understand themselves in relation to things, but they are unable or unwilling to recognize the social relations in which they are embedded.
34 Polanyi, Transformation, 265.
35 K. Sabeel Rahman, Democracy against Domination. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).
36 Brett Christophers, The Great Leveler (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016).
37 Deepening Democracy, ed. Archon Fung and Erik Olin Wright (New York: Verso, 2003); John Gastil, “The Lessons and Limitations of Experiments in Democratic Deliberation,” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): 271–91.
38 Gianpaolo Baiocchi and Ernesto Ganuza, Popular Democracy: The Paradox of Participation (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2017).
39 Fred Block, “Financial Democratization and the Transition to Socialism,” Politics & Society 47, no. 4 (2019): 529–56.