2 The above paragraphs are drawn from a draft of an internal working report submitted to OECD.
3 The added emphasis on the word “national” reflects the widespread state acceptance of the standards, not that they were federally developed. In the final analysis, each state had the choice of whether or not to adopt them.
4 William H. Schmidt, et al., eds., Facing the Consequences: Using TIMSS for a Closer Look at U.S. Mathematics and Science Education (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1999).
5 William H. Schmidt, et al., Why Schools Matter: A Cross-national Comparison of Curriculum and Learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001). See also William H. Schmidt, Curtis C. McKnight, and Senta A. Raizen, A Splintered Vision: An Investigation of U.S. Science and Mathematics Education (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997). See also William H. Schmidt, Hsing Chi Wang, and Curtis C. McKnight, “Curriculum Coherence: An Examination of US Mathematics and Science Content Standards from an International Perspective,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 37, no. 5 (2005): 525–59. All these analyses were controlled for student socioeconomic status (SES).
6 William H. Schmidt, Leland Cogan, and S. Guo, “The Role That Mathematics Plays in College- and Career-Readiness: Evidence from PISA 2012” (unpublished manuscript, 2017).
7 See Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge: Belknap, 2014); Ganesh Sitaraman, The Crisis of the Middle-Class Constitution: Why Economic Inequality Threatens Our Republic (New York: Knopf, 2017); Robert D. Putnam, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015); and Richard G. Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010).
8 William H. Schmidt, et al., “The Role of Schooling in Perpetuating Educational Inequality: An International Perspective,” Educational Researcher 44, no. 7 (Oct. 2015): 371–86.
9 William H. Schmidt and Nathan A. Burroughs, “The Trade-Off between Excellence and Equality: What International Assessments Tell Us,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 17, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2016): 103–9.
10 William H. Schmidt and Curtis C. McKnight, Inequality for All: The Challenge of Unequal Opportunity in American Schools (New York: Teachers College Press, 2012).