2 The argument advanced here expands on Ze’ev Sternhell’s pioneering study, The Founding Myths of Israel, trans. David Maisel (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998). An exceptionally learned scholar of France and Israel, and politically an “old Enlightenment liberal,” Sternhell has been perhaps the single most perceptive analyst of the political ideas of Israel’s founding generation. To Sternhell, these founders were unforgivable hypocrites, fundamentally unserious about the ideologies they proclaimed to profess. In his own writing, however, Sternhell has never made clear how the principles of 1789 that he holds could have been transferred to Jerusalem.
3 Quoted in Benzion Netanyahu, The Founding Fathers of Zionism (Jerusalem: Gefen, 2012), 70.
4 Leon Pinsker, Auto-Emancipation, trans. D. S. Blondheim (New York: Maccabaean Publishing, 1906), 3.
5 See for instance Aaron David Gordon, “The Dream of the Aliyah,” Selected Essays (New York: Arno Press, 1973).
6 Ber Borochov, “The National Question and the Class Struggle” (1905), Marxists.org.
7 See the recent biography by Tom Segev, A State at Any Cost, trans. Haim Watzman (New York: Farrar Strauss Giroux, 2019).
8 Israel very nearly pulled off a domestic fighter jet, the Lavi, in 1980s, but the project was mystifyingly abandoned at the last moment. For a recent, persuasive account of the failure of the Lavi, see Moshe Arens, In Defense of Israel (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2018).
9 Reuven Brenner, “What’s the Venture Capital Secret Sauce?,” Law and Liberty, December 13, 2019.
10 Dan Senor and Saul Singer, Start Up Nation: The Story of Israel’s Economic Miracle (New York: Hachette, 2009).