2 As early as Plato’s Republic and Phaedrus, education includes logic, grammar, and rhetoric (what would later be called the trivium), then arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (the quadrivium).
3 For one of countless examples of such efforts, see the surprisingly pitiable 2011 State of Arizona application for Race to the Top funding from the U.S. Department of Education.
4 “Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education 5-year Strategic Plan: A Report from the Committee on STEM Education of the National Science and Technology Council,” Executive Office of the President, National Science and Technology Council, May 2013.
5 “Charting a Course for Success: America’s Strategy for STEM Education: A Report from the Committee on STEM Education of the National Science and Technology Council,” Executive Office of the President, National Science and Technology Council, December 2018.
6 There are sometimes environmental projects, too, whose hidden premise is usually that political problems about climate or water supplies will have technological rather than political solutions.
7 Aaron Chatterji, “Innovation and American k-12 Education,” NBER Working Paper 23531, June 2017.
8 Tom Knowles, “Silicon Valley’s Tech-Free Waldorf School Is a Hit,” Times (London), November 10, 2018.
9 Natasha Bita, “Computers in Class ‘a Scandalous Waste’: Sydney Grammar Head,” Australian, March 26, 2016.
10 Austan Goolsbee and Jonathan Guryan, “The Impact of Internet Subsidies in Public Schools,” Review of Economics and Statistics 88, no. 2 (May 2006).
11 Maya Escueta, Vincent Quan, Andre Joshua Nickow, and Philip Oreopoulos, “Education Technology: An Evidence-Based Review,” NBER Working Paper no. 23744, August 2017.
12 Susan Carter, Kyle Greenberg, and Michael Walker, “The Impact of Computer Usage on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Randomized Trial at the United States Military Academy,” SEII Discussion Paper no. 2016.02, May 2016.
13 Arnold L. Glass and Mengxue Kang, “Dividing Attention in the Classroom Reduces Exam Performance,” Educational Psychology 39, no. 3 (July 26, 2019): 395–408.
14 George Bulman and Robert W. Fairlie, “Technology and Education: Computers, Software, and the Internet,” NBER Working Paper no. 22237, May 2016.
15 Larissa Campuzano et al., “Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings From Two Student Cohorts,” National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 2009.
16 Bulman and Fairlie.
17 Aaron K. Chatterji and Benjamin F. Jones, “Learning What Works in Educational Technology with a Case Study of edustar,” Policy Memo 2016-01, The Hamilton Project, March 2016.
18 Markus Kiefer et al., “Handwriting or Typewriting? The Influence of Pen- or Keyboard-Based Writing Training on Reading and Writing Performance in Preschool Children,” Advances in Cognitive Psychology 11, no. 4 (December 2015); Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer, “The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand over Laptop Note Taking,” Psychological Science 25, no. 6 (2014): 1159–68; Anne Mangen et al., “Handwriting versus Keyboard Writing: Effect on Word Recall,” Journal of Writing Research 7, no. 2 (October 2015). Allowances obviously should be made for disabled students using computer assistance where handwriting is not possible.
19 Virginia Clinton, “Reading from Paper Compared to Screens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Research in Reading 42, no. 2 (January 2019).
20 Tim Wu, “How Today’s Computers Weaken Our Brain,” New Yorker, September 9, 2013.
21 See, for example, Adam Alter, Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked (New York: Penguin Books, 2017).
22 Yolanda Chassiakos et al., “Children and Adolescents and Digital Media,” Pediatrics 138, no. 5 (November 2016).
23 One particularly compliant superintendent in Baltimore took 65 industry trips over the course of three years, at least two thirds paid for by the educational tech lobby; Natasha Singer and Danielle Ivory, “How Silicon Valley Plans to Conquer the Classroom,” New York Times, November 3, 2017.
24 Michael Chui, James Manyika, and Mehdi Miremadi, “Four Fundamentals of Workplace Automation,” McKinsey & Company, November 2015.
25 Carl Frey and Michael Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?,” September 17, 2013.
26 Anna Stansbury and Lawrence Summers, “On the Link between US Pay and Productivity,” VOX CEPR Policy Portal, February 20, 2018.
27 Matthew C. Klein, “How Many US Manufacturing Jobs Were Lost to Globalisation?” Financial Times, December 6, 2016; David Autor, David Dorn, and Gordon Hanson, “The China Syndrome: Local Labor Market Effects of Import Competition in the United States,” August 2011.
28 James Woodworth et al., “Online Charter School Study,” Stanford University Center for Research on Education Outcomes, 2015.
29 John Hansen and Justin Reich, “Democratizing Education? Examining Access and Usage Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses,” Science 350, no. 6265 (January 2015).
30 Hal Salzman, Daniel Kuehn, and B. Lindsay Lowell, “Guestworkers in the High-Skill U.S. Labor Market: An Analysis of Supply, Employment, and Wage Trends,” Economic Policy Institute, April 2013.
31 Anniecannons (website), accessed July 27, 2019.
32 Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Beyond Coal: Imagining Appalachia’s Future,” New York Times, August 17, 2016.
33 Chris Redlitz, “Why I’m Teaching Prisoners to Code,” TED, February 18, 2016.
34 Code to Inspire (website), accessed July 27, 2019.
35 C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures (London: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
36 Nellie Bowles, “A Dark consensus about Screens and Kids Begins to Emerge in Silicon Valley,” New York Times, October 26, 2018.
37 Nicholas Tampio, “Democracy and National Education Standards,” Journal of Politics 79, no. 1 (2016).
38 Nicholas Tampio, Common Core: National Education Standards and the Threat to Democracy, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018), ch. 3; Benjamin Winterhalter, “Computer Grading Will Destroy Our Schools,” Salon, September 30, 2013.