2 Larry Diamond, “Facing Up to the Democratic Recession,” Journal of Democracy 26, no. 1 (January 2015): 141–55.
3 See Adam Segal, “When China Rules the Web: Technology in Service of the State,” Foreign Affairs 97, no. 5 (September/October 2018): 10–18.
4 Kurt M. Campbell and Ely Ratner, “The China Reckoning: How Beijing Defied American Expectations,” Foreign Affairs 97, no. 2 (March/April 2018): 60–70.
5 The president is required to submit an annual national trade policy agenda and accompanying report, but that document’s scope is considerably narrower and less forward-looking than the longer-term strategic documents produced in other areas of foreign affairs. See Trade Act of 1974, section 163. The Trade Policy Review Group and Trade Policy Staff Committee, established by the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, consist of twenty agencies, highlighting the problem rather than solving it.
6 Cf. John Podesta, Sarah Rosen Wartell, and Jitinder Kohli, “A Focus on Competitiveness: Restructuring Policymaking for Results,” Center for American Progress, December 2010.
7 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would move to the Department of the Interior.
8 Noah Smith, “How to Fill the Gaps in the U.S. Economy,” Bloomberg, September 27, 2018.
9 Overview at Ian F. Ferguson and Paul K. Kerr, “The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative,” Congressional Research Services, October 30, 2018; see also Robert M. Gates, Speech to Business Executives for National Security, April 20, 2010.
10 The classic work in economics is Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965); in public law, Bruce Ackerman, “Beyond Carolene Products,” Harvard Law Review 98, no. 4 (February 1985): 713–46.
11 White House, “President Obama Announces Proposal to Reform, Reorganize, and Consolidate Government,” January 13, 2012.
12 In October 2018, Congress passed the Better Utilization of Investment Leading to Development (build) Act, which creates the U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (IDFC). IDFC combines OPIC and certain development financing elements of the U.S. Agency for International Development to create a new development finance corporation. While a step in the right direction, and one that shows that Congress can indeed lead, the build Act’s reorganization does not address the need for an overarching international economic policy. See Daniel F. Runde and Romina Bandura, “The build Act Has Passed: What’s Next?,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, October 12, 2018.
13 John Murphy, “Urge to Merge: Why Combining the U.S. Trade Representative with Other Trade Agencies Is a Bad Idea” (American Enterprise Institute, February 22, 2012).
14 Shayerah Ilias, “Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, May 31, 2012; Daniel F. Runde and Meredith Broadbent, “President’s Proposed Reorganization of Trade Agencies,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, January 18, 2012; Murphy, “Urge to Merge.”
15 Runde and Broadbent, “President’s Proposed Reorganization.”