2 Sherle Schwenninger, email to the author
5 For an authoritative account of America’s misadventures in Russia during the Clinton administration see: Stephen F. Cohen, Failed Crusade (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000).
6 See, for example: Damien Sharkov, “Putin is a ‘Smart but Truly Evil Man,’ Says Madeleine Albright,” Newsweek, Apr. 20, 2016.
7 Cohen, Failed Crusade, 244.
9 Vladimir Putin, “Prepared Remarks at 43rd Munich Conference on Security Policy” (transcript), Washington Post, Feb. 12, 2007.
10 Josh Rogin, “National Security Figures Launch Project to Counter Russian Mischief,” Washington Post, Jul. 11, 2017.
13 Alan Feuer and Andrew Higgins, “Extremists Turn to a Leader to Protect Western Values: Vladimir Putin,” New York Times, Dec. 3, 2016.
17 Hillary Clinton, What Happened (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017), 332.
18 Which is, as of this writing, a tacit, though fragile, alliance between oligarchs (President Petro Poroshenko) and the Ukrainian far-right (Speaker of the Ukrainian parliament Andriy Parubiy).
19 Pietro Shakarian, PhD candidate in Russian studies at Ohio State, email to author
22 On US Supreme Court decision, see: Pete Williams, “Supreme Court Allows Mississippi Anti-LGBT Law to Stand,” NBC News, Jan. 8, 2018.
23 Travis Waldron, “Will LGBT Protests in Sochi Have Any Effect on Vladimir Putin’s Russia?” ThinkProgress, Feb. 7, 2014.
25A personal anecdote may help further illustrate the point: In October 2012, as part of my State Department duties, I accompanied a Manhattan-based documentary filmmaker on a cultural tour of Russia. At a school event in a small town not far from Yekaterinburg, the filmmaker, after giving his presentation to a very receptive and excited group of teenage students, shouted, unbidden: “Free Pussy Riot!” The reaction he expected was not the one he received—stunned and annoyed silence.
31 Tony Judt, introduction to Raymond Aron’s Dawn of Universal History (New York: Basic Books, 2002).
35 See, for instance, Saul Bellow’s 1970 novel Mr. Sammler’s Planet. The protagonist, Artur Sammler, is a refugee who once fought as a partisan in wartime Poland. Of Sammler, Bellow writes, “Like many people who had seen the world collapse once, Mr. Sammler entertained the possibility it might collapse twice.” This is as good and pithy a summation of Cold War liberalism as any.
37 One important caveat: if countries receive huge amounts of American largess, then their domestic arrangements, which we are then inevitably identified with, may consequently be subject to American influence or criticism.