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9 Theodore R. Marmor, Kieke G. H. Okma, and Stephen R. Latham, “Comparative Perspectives on National Values, Institutions and Health Policies,” in Soziologie der Gesundheit, Claus Wendt and Christof Wolf, eds. (Sonderheft: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychology, 2006), 383–405.
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11 Labra, “Notas Críticas.”
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13 Armando Barrientos, “Health Policy in Chile: The Return of the Public Sector?,” Bulletin of Latin American Research 21, no. 3 (July 2002): 442–59; Ricardo H. Höfter, “Private Health Insurance and Utilization of Health Services in Chile,” Applied Economics 38, no. 4 (2002): 423–39.
14 Maria E. Labra, “Modes of Health Policy Making and Medical Interests in Chile in the 20th Century,” updated English translation of the article “Padrões de Formulação de Políticas de Saúde no Chile no Século XX,” DADOS-Revista de Ciências Sociais 43, no. 1 (2000): 153–82.
15 Superintendencia de Salud, Estadísticas, August 3, 2011.
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19 Jean-Pierre Unger, Pierre De Paepe, Giorgio Solimano Cantuarias, and Oscar Arteaga Herrera, “Chile’s Neoliberal Health Reform: An Assessment and a Critique,” PLoS Med 5, no. 4 (April 2008).
20 Asociación de isapres, “Isapres 1981–2016: 35 Años de Desarrollo del Sistema de Salud Privado en Chile,” Enero 2017.
21 Jost, “Managed Care Regulation.”
22 Maria Labra and Amarilis Tapia, Reformas del Sector Salud y Salud Sexual y Reproductiva en América Latina y el Caribe: Tendencias e interrelaciones—una revisión. El caso de Chile (Mexico City: UNFPA, 2005), 69–80.
23 “Realizing Rights through Social Guarantees: Analysis of New Approaches to Social Policy in Latin America and South Africa,” World Bank Social Development Department, Report No. 40047-GLB, accessed August 2, 2011.
24 Thomas J. Bossert and Thomas Leisewitz, “Innovation and Change in the Chilean Health System,” New England Journal of Medicine 374 (2016): 1–5.
25 Guillermo Paraje and Antonio Infante, “La Reforma AUGE 10 Años Después,” in Las Nuevas Políticas de Protección Social en Chile, Segunda Edición, ed. O. Larrañaga and D. Contreras (Santiago, Chile: Uqbar Editores, 2015), 73–111.
26 Labra, “Notas Críticas.”
27 Rachel Nissanholtz Gannot, David Chinitz, and Sara Rosenbaum, “What Should Health Insurance Cover?: A Comparison of Israeli and US Approaches to Benefit Design under National Health Reform,” Health Economics Policy and Law (January 2018): 1–20.
28 “OECD Health Statistics 2017,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
29 Government of Israel, “Report of the State Judicial Commission of Inquiry into the Health System” (Jerusalem: Government Printing House, 1991).
30 David Chinitz, “How Israel Got Universal Health Care 20 Years Ago, and Why It’s Working,” Tablet magazine, September 27, 2017.
33 Government of Israel, “Report of the State Judicial Commission.”
34 Chinitz, “How Israel Got Universal Health Care.”
36 David Chinitz and Avi Israeli, “Not Everything Is Black or White: Commentary on Filc D and Cohen N, Blurring the Boundaries between Public and Private Health Care Services as an Alternative Explanation for the Emergence of Black Medicine: The Israeli Case,” Health Economics, Policy and Law 11, no. 2 (2016), 215–21; “More and More, the Universal Healthcare System in Israel is not Enough,” Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel, August 3, 2017.
37 Chinitz, “How Israel Got Universal Health Care.”
38 Ministry of Health, “German Committee Report,” Jerusalem (2014).
39 Esti Engelchin-Nissan and Amir Shmueli, “Private finance of services covered by the National Health Insurance package of benefits in Israel,” Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 4, no. 45 (2015); Taub Center, “More and More.”
40 Nissanholtz et al., “What Should Health Insurance Cover.”
41 Ministry of Health.
44 Abram de Swaan, In Care of the State: Healthcare, Education and Welfare in Europe and the USA in the Modern Era (Oxford: Polity Press, 1998).
45 Arend Lijphart, Verzuiling, Pacificatie en Kentering in de Nederlandse Politiek (Amsterdam: J. H. de Bussy, 1968).
46 Kieke G. H. Okma and Theodore R. Marmor, “Health Risks and Health Care Reform in Western Europe and North America,” International Review of Public Administration 19, no. 3 (2014): 274–85.
47 Commissie Dekker, Bereidheid tot Verandering (The Hague: Distributiecentrum Overheidspublicaties, 1987).
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49 Frederik T. Schut and Wynand P. M. M. Van de Ven, “Rationing and Competition in the Dutch Health-Care System,” Health Economics 14, no. 1 (2005): S59–S74.
50 Kieke G. H. Okma and Aad A. De Roo, “The Netherlands: From Polder Model to Modern Management” in Comparative Studies and the Politics of Modern Medicine, ed. Theodore R. Marmor, Richard Freeman, and Kieke G. H. Okma (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013), 120–52; Monitor Financial Sector, “Competition in the Dutch Health Insurance Market: Interim Report,” Authority for Consumers and Markets (2016).
51 Marieke Smit and Philip Mokveld, “Verzekerdenmobiliteit en Keuzegedrag” (Zeist: Vektis, 2007).
52 M. G. N. Romp and P. P. A. B. Merkx, “Zorgthermometer: Verzekerden in beeld” (Zeist: Vektis, 2017).
53 Smit and Mokveld, “Verzekerdenmobiliteit.”
54 Kenniscentrum Historie Ziektekostenverzekeringen (Houten, Netherlands, 2017).
55 Romp and Merkx, “Zorgthermometer.”
56 Okma and De Roo, “The Netherlands.”
57 Monitor Financial Sector, “Dutch health insurance market.”
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59 Romp and Merkx, “Zorgthermometer.”
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62 T. Laske-Aldershof et al., “Consumer Mobility in Social Health Insurance Markets. A Five-Country Comparison,” Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 3, no. 4 (2004): 229–41; Monitor Financial Sector, “Dutch health insurance market.”
63 Romp and Merkx, “Zorgthermometer.”
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65 A. O. Hirschman, Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970).
66 Zorginstituut, 2017.
67 Laske-Aldershof et al., “Consumer Mobility.”
68 There is an unsolved question regarding the legal status of the 2006 Health Insurance Act ZVW. The Dutch government initially presented the law as private but changed its mind when it realized privatization would be unacceptable in Dutch society and might run afoul of international treaties. Treaties of the International Labor Organization, Council of Europe, or European Union (EU), for example, require member states to cover a minimum share of their populations by social insurance. The only authority to determine the nature of the system is the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The ECJ will only give a formal ruling after someone has brought a case to the Court. That has not (yet) happened. This is not just a semantic question: Regulatory regimes of social and private insurance differ substantially. Under the EU Treaty, national governments can determine the nature of their health system (e.g., a National Health Service model or social health insurance). Once providers and insurers are free to negotiate over the volume and prices of their services, however, they engage in economic activity subject to EU competition law, the ECJ has ruled. That restricts government intervention, for example, in setting prices or allowing collective bargaining. Some argue that the ZVW cannot be labeled social insurance, as mandates requires residents to take out insurance but do not automatically register everybody.
69 Schut and van de Ven, “Rationing and Competition.”
70 Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, “Kenmerken.”
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77 J. Cumming and G. Salmond, “Reforming New Zealand Health Care,” in Markets in Health Care: A Comparative Analysis, ed. Wendy Ranade (New York: Addison Wesley, 1998), 122–44.
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79 Annette King, “The New Zealand National Health Strategy,” Ministry of Health, Wellington (2000); “New Zealand Health Strategy of Health: Future Direction,” Ministry of Health, Wellington (2016).
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83 Chalmers, Ashton, and Tenbensel, 2017.
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85 Robin Gauld, Revolving Doors: New Zealand’s Health Reforms (Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington, 2009).
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92 Cheng, “Reflections on the 20th Anniversary.”
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94 Rifat Atun et al., “Universal Coverage in Latin America: Health-System Reform and Universal Coverage in Latin America,” series of articles in The Lancet 385 (March 28, 2015): 1,230–47.
95 Mark Weisbrot, “Ecuador’s Decade of Reform,” Huffington Post, February 2, 2017.
96 Daniel Lopes-Cevallo and Chunhuei Chi, “Assessing the Context of Healthcare Utilization in Ecuador: A Spatial and Multilevel Analysis,” BMC Health Services Research 10 (2010): 64.
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