2 Eldon J. Eisenach, The Lost Promise of Progressivism (Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1994); Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life, ed. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (New York: Macmillan, 1909).
3 Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianity and the Social Crisis, ed. Robert D. Cross (New York: Macmillan, 1907).
4 Gertrude Himmelfarb, Poverty and Compassion: The Moral Imagination of the Late Victorians (New York: Vintage, 1991); Joel Schwartz, Fighting Poverty With Virtue: Moral Reform and America’s Urban Poor, 1825–2000 (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2000).
5 Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (New York: Scribner, 1890).
6 Peter Skerry, Mexican Americans: The Ambivalent Minority (New York: Free Press, 1993).
7 Richard D. Kahlenberg, “Harvard’s Class Gap,” Harvard Magazine 119, no. 5 (May/June 2017): 35–9.
8 Lilla, “End of Identity Liberalism.”
9 Calculated from the U.S. Census, March 2017 Current Population Survey, table POV1.
10 Lawrence M. Mead, “Welfare Politics in Congress,” PS: Political Science and Politics 44, no. 2 (April 2011): 345–56.
11 Ronald Reagan is commonly thought to have criticized “welfare queens.” He did give a speech in Chicago where he used that term. But he borrowed it from the local press who had coined it for a local welfare mother who abused the system; he did not invent it. See “‘Welfare Queen’ Becomes Issue in Reagan Campaign,” New York Times, February 15, 1976, 51.
15 “Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 million to U.S., Driving Population Growth and Change Through 2065” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, September 28, 2015).
16 Ibid.; “The New White Minority,” Economist, August 23, 2014, 22.
17 Quoted in Oliva Golden, “The Trump Agenda Poses a Major Threat to America’s Children,” Washington Monthly, January 19, 2017.
18 Mark Krikorian, “The Real Immigration Debate: Whom to Let In and Why,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2017.
19 U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform (Jordan Commission), Becoming an American: Immigration and Immigrant Policy (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, September 1997).
20 Lawrence M. Mead, “Is Complaint a Moral Argument?” in NOMOS XLIV: Child, Family, and State, ed. Stephen Macedo and Iris Marion Young (New York: New York University Press, 2003), chap. 4.
21 Jane J. Mansbridge, Why We Lost the ERA (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).
22 Kenneth F. Scheve and Matthew J. Slaughter, Globalization and the Perceptions of American Workers (Washington, D.C.: Institute of International Economics, March 2001); Morris Levy, Matthew Wright, and Jack Citrin, “Mass Opinion and Immigration Policy in the United States: Re-Assessing Clientelist and Elitist Perspectives,” Perspectives on Politics 14, no. 3 (September 2016): 660–80.
25 Lawrence M. Mead, “Trump’s Impact: The End of Sameness,” Society 54, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2017): 14–17.