2 Considering only municipal school districts, 2015–2016 results. Connecticut State Department of Education, Performance and Accountability, http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2683&Q=334346.
3 Zillow, accessed Oct. 12, 2017, https://www.zillow.com/.
4 Connecticut State Department of Education, Performance and Accountability, http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2683&Q=334346.
5 Chris Arnade, “Divided by Meaning,” Medium, October 9, 2016, https://medium.com/@Chris_arnade/divided-by-meaning-1ab510759ee7; Robert B. Reich, The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st-Century Capitalism (New York: Knopf, 1991); Charles Murray, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (New York: Crown Forum, 2012); Richard V. Reeves, Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class Is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That Is a Problem, and What to Do about It (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2017); Venkatesh Rao, “The Premium Mediocre Life of Maya Millennial,” Ribbonfarm (blog), Aug. 17, 2017, https://www.ribbonfarm.com/2017/08/17/the-premium-mediocre-life-of-maya-millennial/; Robert D. Putnam, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015); Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2003); David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000).
6 Turo Uskali and David Nordfors, “The Role of Journalism in Creating the Metaphor of Silicon Valley” (unpublished manuscript, 2017 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239760407_The_Role_of_Journalism_in_Creating_the_Meta-phor_of_Silicon_Valley.
7 From 1910 to 1950.
8 Chang-Tai Hsieh and Enrico Moretti, “Housing Constraints and Spatial Misallocation” (working paper, May 18, 2017), https://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/chang-tai.hsieh/research/growth.pdf.
9 Kyle F. Herkenhoff, Lee E. Ohanian, and Edward C. Prescott, “Tarnishing the Golden and Empire States: Land-Use Restrictions and the U.S. Economic Slowdown,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 23790 (September 2017), http://www.nber.org/papers/w23790.
10 Andrii Parkhomenko, “The Rise of Housing Supply Regulation in the U.S.: Local Causes and Aggregate Implications” (working paper, Jan. 5, 2017), https://www.andrii-parkhomenko.net/files/Parkhomenko_JMP.pdf.
11 Quoctrung Bui, Matt A. V. Chaban, and Jeremy White, “40 Percent of the Buildings in Manhattan Could Not Be Built Today,” New York Times, May 20, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/05/19/upshot/forty-percent-of-manhattans-buildings-could-not-be-built-today.html.
12 Daniel Hertz, “The Illegal City of Somerville,” CityCommentary (blog), June 15, 2016, http://cityobservatory.org/the-illegal-city-of-somerville/.
13 Tracy Hadden Loh and Brent Bolin, “Mount Rainier as We Know It Couldn’t Be Built under Today’s Zoning Laws,” Greater Greater Washington, June 30, 2017, https://ggwash.org/view/63943/mount-rainier-as-we-know-it-couldnt-be-builtunder-todays-zoning-laws; and Nolan Gray, “Learning from a Non-Conforming Neighborhood,” Strong Towns, June 13, 2017, https://www.strongtowns.org/journal/2017/6/9/learning-from-a-non-conforming-neighborhood.
14 Thaddeus Bell, Village of Trumansburg Residential Zoning Analysis, Spring 2016, http://trumansburg-ny.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2016-Trumansburg-Zoning-Analysis.pdf.
15 Town of Mansfield, Planning Maps, http://www.mansfieldma.com/town-government/departments/building-zoning-and-planning/planningzoning/planning-zoning-maps/.
16 Bridget Balch, “Incorporation of The Woodlands under Critical Examination,” Courier of Montgomery County, Feb. 19, 2015, http://www.yourconroenews.com/news/article/Incorporation-of-The-Woodlands-under-critical-9470182.php.
17 Holland and Knight, “Holland & Knight Study Uncovers Widespread CEQA Litigation Abuse,” news release, Aug. 4, 2015, https://www.hklaw.com/news/holland-knight-study-uncovers-widespread-ceqa-litigation-abuse-08-04-2015/.
18 Maya Srikrishnan, “Lakeside Business Owners Bet the Farm on CEQA Challenge,” Voice of San Diego, Jan. 8, 2016, http://www.voiceofsandiego.org/topics/land-use/lakeside-business-owners-bet-the-farm-on-ceqa-challenge/.
19 Melissa Daniels, “Calif. High Court Rules CEQA Not Preempted in Rail Row,” Law360, July 27, 2017, https://www.law360.com/articles/948684/calif-high-court-rules-ceqa-not-preempted-in-rail-row.
20 Conor Berry, “Legal Counsel to Ludlow Board of Selectmen: No Grounds to Deny Low-Income Housing Plan by Way Finders,” MassLive, June 13, 2017, http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2017/06/ludlows_hire_attorney_on_chapt.html.
21 William A. Fischel, The Homevoter Hypothesis: How Home Values Influence Local Government Taxation, School Finance, and Land-Use Policies (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005).
22 Edward L. Glaeser and Bryce A. Ward, “The Causes and Consequences of Land Use Regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston,” Journal of Urban Economics 65 (2009): 265–78.
23 Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, “The Effect of Land Use Regulation on Housing and Land Prices,” Journal of Urban Economics 61, no. 3 (May 2007): 420–35.
24 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961).
25 Murray, Coming Apart.
26 Pew Research Center, Abigail Geiger and John Gramlich, “The Changing Face of Congress in 5 Charts,” Feb. 2, 2017, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/02/the-changing-face-of-congress-in-5-charts/.
27 “Index—Which Countries Have the Best Schools?,” Learning Curve, Pearson, Jan. 2014, http://thelearningcurve.pearson.com/index/index-ranking.
28 Abby Jackson and Andy Kiersz, “The Latest Ranking of Top Countries in Math, Reading, and Science Is Out—And the US Didn’t Crack the Top 10,” Business Insider, Dec. 6, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/pisa-worldwide-rankingof-math-science-reading-skills-2016-12.
29 Atila Abdulkadiroglu, Parag A. Pathak, Jonathan Schellenberg, and Christopher R. Walters, “Do Parents Value School Effectiveness?,” NBER Working Paper no. 23912, Oct. 2017, http://www.nber.org/papers/w23912.
30 Petra Thiemann, “The Persistent Effects of Short-Term Peer Groups in Higher Education,” IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Discussion Paper no. 11024, Sept. 2017, http://ftp.iza.org/dp11024.pdf.
31 Bruce Sacerdote, “Peer Effects in Education: How Might they Work, How Big Are They, and How Much Do We Know Thus Far?,” in Handbook of the Economics of Education, ed. Eric Hanushek, Stephen Machin, and Ludger Woessmann (Elsevier, 2010), 250–73.
32 Julian R. Betts and Y. Emily Tang, “A Meta-Analysis of the Literature on the Effect of Charter Schools on Student Achievement,” Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness conference paper, Spring 2016.
33 Lindsey Burke, “Avoiding the ‘Inexorable Push toward Homogenization’ in School Choice: Education Savings Accounts as Hedges Against Institutional Isomorphism,” Journal of School Choice 10, no. 4 (2016): 560–78.
34 Yusuke Jinnai, “Direct and Indirect Impact of Charter Schools’ Entry on Traditional Public Schools: New Evidence from North Carolina,” Economics Letters 124, no. 3 (Sept. 2014): 452–56.
35 Maryland Alliance of Charter Schools, Oct. 2017, http://www.marylandcharterschools.org/charter/schools.
36 Adam Clark, “‘Amazing’ Montclair District Opposes French Charter School,” NJ.com, Sept. 7, 2016, http://www.nj.com/education/2016/09/amazing_montclair_district_opposes_french_charter.html.
37 See the literature review in David L. Silvernail and Amy Johnson, “The Impacts of Public Charter Schools on Students and Traditional Public Schools: What Does the Empirical Evidence Tell Us?,” brief, Maine Education Policy Research Institute, University of Southern Maine, 2014, http://digitalcommons.usm.maine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=cepare_funding.
38 This paragraph is adapted from the famous quote by Daniel Burnham. Quoted in “Closing in on 1911–1912,” chap. 25 of Charles Moore, Daniel H. Burnham: Architect, Planner of Cities, 2 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1921), 2:147.