2 Rousseau, “First Discourse,” Second Part, p. 29.
3 In the 19th century, Marx would further develop this idea in his critique of capitalism. See Karl Marx, “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844,” The Marx-Engels Reader, p. 103: “That which is for me through the medium of money ¾ that for which I can pay (i.e., which money can buy) ¾ that am I, the possessor of money. The extent of money is the extent of my power . . . . I am bad, dishonest, unscrupulous, stupid; but money is honored, and therefore so is its possessor” (emphasis in original). Money, on Marx’s view, becomes the universal prosthesis in the Age of Capitalism.
4 The terms, “focal” and “tacit” knowledge, are those invented by Polanyi, in the mid-20th century. His insights, absent the terms, are already there in Rousseau. See Michael Polanyi, Personal Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
5 See Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Henry Lawrence trans. (New York, Harper & Row, 1966), Vol. II, Part II, Ch. 2, p. 508.
6 Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. II, Part II, Ch. 2, p. 515.
7 Ibid., Part III, Ch. 21, p. 645.
8 Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. II, Part IV, Ch. 6, pp. 691-92.
9 For further elaboration, see my “Age of Exhaustion,” in The American Interest, November/December 2015, Vol. XI, No. 2, pp. 53-64.
10 Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. I, Part I, Ch. 5, p. 88.
12 See Tocqueville’s letter to Eugène Stoffels, dated July 24, 1836, in Memoir, Letter, and Remains of Alexis de Tocqueville, translated from the French by the translator of Napoleon’s Correspondence with King Joseph, (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1862), Vol. 1, p. 381.
13 Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Walter Kaufman trans. (New York: Random House, 1995), Prologue, §5, pp. 17-18.
14 The best thinking, by far, about this puzzle remains Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987), especially Part Two, pp. 141-240.
15 See Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. I, Part I, Ch. 2, pp. 35-47.
16 See Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. I, Part II, Ch. 9, p. 282.
17 Ibid., Vol. II, Part II, Ch. 5, p. 513.